• September 20, 2023
kidney stones

Understanding Kidney Stones: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, and Dietary Recommendations

fitdontquit.com – Kidney stones, scientifically known as nephrolithiasis, are hard and stone-like deposits that form within the kidneys. These deposits are primarily made up of salts and minerals present in the kidneys and can create health problems along the urinary tract. Let’s dive into the complex nature of kidney stones to understand the causes, symptoms, risk factors, types, and treatment options.

What Causes Kidney Stones?

Kidney stones are a result of the crystallization of waste substances in the blood within the kidneys. Key substances that may form these stones include oxalic acid and calcium, which over time can harden into stone-like formations.

  1. Formation & Movement: Once formed, these stones may settle in the kidneys or move towards the urinary tract. Small stones might pass through urine without pain, but larger ones can cause significant discomfort and obstruction.
  2. Urine Composition: The formation of kidney stones is also influenced by the urine’s chemical composition. An imbalance between the substances that form crystals, like calcium, oxalate, and uric acid, and substances that prevent crystal adherence, creates an ideal environment for stone formation.
  3. Irritation: Large stones are more likely to cause irritation in the urinary tract.
  4. Early Detection: Early detection and treatment can prevent permanent kidney damage.

Risk Factors

Certain factors increase the likelihood of developing kidney stones, including:

  • Family and Medical History: A family history of kidney stones, or having had them before, increases the risk.
  • Age: Commonly occurs between ages 30 to 50.
  • Dehydration: Lack of adequate water intake.
  • Excessive Salt Intake: High sodium consumption increases calcium in the kidneys.
  • Obesity: High BMI and weight gain are linked to increased risk.
  • Digestive Diseases and Surgery: Conditions like chronic diarrhea or gastric bypass surgery can affect calcium and water absorption.
  • Other Medical Conditions: Certain medical conditions like renal tubular acidosis, cystinuria, hyperparathyroidism, and recurrent urinary tract infections.
  • Certain Supplements and Medications: Excessive vitamin C or laxative usage.

Types of Kidney Stones

  1. Calcium Stones: Mostly calcium oxalate or calcium phosphate.
  2. Struvite Stones: Form in response to urinary tract infections.
  3. Uric Acid Stones: Common in those losing too much fluid or consuming high protein diets.
  4. Cystine Stones: Occur in people with a hereditary disorder called cystinuria.


Symptoms may include:

  • Sharp and severe pain in the side and back.
  • Pain radiating to the lower abdomen and groin.
  • Fluctuating pain intensity.
  • Pain or burning sensation during urination.
  • Cloudy or foul-smelling urine.
  • Frequent or scant urination.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Fever and chills (if infection present).


Diagnosis is conducted through:

  • Medical Interview: Inquiring about symptoms, medical history, and current medications.
  • Physical Examination: Checking for pain in relevant areas.
  • Urine Test: To detect specific substances.
  • Blood Test: To evaluate kidney function and uric acid levels.
  • Scanning: Using X-rays, ultrasound, or CT scan.
  • Stone Analysis: Examining the passed stone to determine the cause and treatment plan.


Treatment options vary depending on the stone’s size and type:

  1. Medication: Pain relievers, antibiotics, or medications to assist stone passage.
  2. Increased Fluid Intake: Drinking 6-8 glasses of water daily.
  3. Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL): Breaking the stone into smaller pieces.
  4. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy: Surgical removal through a small incision.
  5. Ureteroscopy: Retrieving the stone using a small camera-equipped cable.

Dietary Restrictions

People with kidney stones should be cautious with:

  • Salt Intake: As high sodium can boost calcium buildup.
  • Other specific dietary considerations may be advised by healthcare providers.


Kidney stones are complex and multifaceted in nature. Proper understanding, prevention strategies, and early intervention are essential to manage this condition. As a health expert, I strongly recommend following a balanced diet, staying hydrated, and seeking professional medical advice if you experience any symptoms associated with kidney stones.